Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Notes on INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT for Prelims



Drain of wealth theory:
R C Dutt: Economic history of India
Dadabhai Naoroji: Poverty and unbritish rule in India.

Drain of wealth refers to a portion of national product of India, which was not available for consumption of its people.

Revolt of 1857
Causes :
Economic
: Heavy taxation, Zamindari and monopoly.
Political: Doctrine of lapse
Military: Religious interference of soldiers and low salary.

Centers of Revolt:
Delhi:
Bhadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan
Kanpur: Nana Sahib, Tantiya Tope
Lucknow: Begum Hazrat Mahal
Jhansi: Rani Laxmibai
Bareilly: Khan Bahadur Khan
Bihar: Kunwar Singh.

Who said what about 1857 revolt:
Disraeli (opposition leader): A national Revolt
V D Savarkar: First war of Independence

Causes of failure:
Lack of coordination
No ideology or vision
Sikhs, Marathas, Jat- opposed
Limited social base

Impact of Mutiny
Rule of East India company ended
-India transferred to British Crown
-A minister of British Government called Secretary of State was made responsible for Government of India.
-The British Governer General was given title of viceroy
-Doctrine of Lapse withdrawn.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy(1771-1833)
Established Brhama Samaj

Prarthna Sabha:
In 1867 by MG Ranade

Arya Samaj
Bombay in 1875 by Swami Dayanand Saraswati
Started Shuddhi Movement

Dayanand
-Earliest Neo-nationalist
-“Go back to Vedas”
-Wrote “Satyartha Prakash”

Ram Krishna Paramhans
Original name : Gadoidhar Chattopadhyay

Swami Vivekananda(63-02)
-Original name: Narendranath Dutta
-Attended Parliament of religions held at Chicago in 1893 and Published – Prabhudha Bharata in English and Udbodhana in Bengali.
-Founded “Ramakrishna Mission”

THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
First meeting organized by A.O Hume at Gokaldar Tejpal Sanskrit College on 28th Dec 1885 (Bombay). Its first president was W C Bannerjee.

-Gandhiji became the president in 1924 (Belgaum)
-S C Bose became the president in 1938 (Haripura) and 1939 (Tripuri)
-President during Quit India Movement 1940- Maulan Abul Kalam Azad (Ramgarh)
-J L Nehru became president for the first time in – 1929 (Lahore)

SWADESHI MOVEMENT
It began as an anti-partition agitationo in Bengal and Boycott was first suggested by KrishnaKumar Mitra in Sanjivni in 1905

Leaders Journals
Bipin Pal New India
Barinder Ghosh Yugantar
K K Mitra Sanjivani

Moderates and Extremists in Congress
Moderates- Pray, Petition.
Extremists- Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai.

-Tilak said “Swaraj is my birth right”
-He was the editor of Maratta ( English) and Kesri (Marathi)

Minto Morley Reforms(1909)
-Separate electorate for muslims.
-Elections introduced for the first time.

Home rule Movement
Tilak and Anni-Besant

Anni- Besant’s News Papers: “New India”, “Commonweal”,

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