Thursday, August 27, 2009

Land Acquisition Act 1894

This act which was enacted in 1894 is one of the remnants of the colonial legacy on independent India. Sure there have been amendments to the act but the character of the act still remains the same.

For those of us who are not aware of the exact contents of the act, I wish to briefly explain the act as I would to a layman. The act has various sections and without going deep into each section, I will try and simplify by going step wise.

The act is basically meant to acquire land for public purposes and for companies.

Step I
  • appropriate govt makes a preliminary notification that land is required for public purpose or a company. This notice made under section 4(1) has to be published in official gazette and in two local news papers atleast one of them being in local language.
  • Primary survey is then done to ascertain the suitability of land.
  • Any interested party, meaning owner of land can within 30 days of publication of notice u/s 4(1) submit his objections to the collector who hears the objections and after making necessary enquiry submit his recommendations and report to the govt.
Step II

  • The govt after considering the report of collector, the govt issues a declaration u/s 6(1) that the said land is required for public purpose or for a company. This declaration has to be made within one year of the notification u/s 4(1). This declaration is then published in official gazette and two local news papers.
  • After this the collector initiates further action like measurement etc.
Step III

  • Once this is done, collector acting under section 9 directs through a public notice that any claims for compensation of the land be made to him.
  • These claims are heard and then collector gives his award for compensation u/s 11.
  • award has to be made within 2 years from date of declaration u/s 6.
Step IV
  • The collector can take possession of the land after the order is made.
Step V
  • On making the award u/s 11, the collector then makes payment of the compensation awarded by him.
  • In case amount is not paid or deposited in court as the case be before taking possession of the land, the collector has to pay an interest @9% per annum for the first year and @15%per annum subsequently.
  • Any body who is not acceptable to the amount of compensation can through the collector appeal to the district court. The court can only decide on the amount of compensation and not any thing else. The court can also not decrease the compensation awarded by the collector.
  • In addition to the above compensation courts should award a sum of 30% on the market value ascertained by it. Further courts shall also award a sum of 12% of market value for the intervening period from date of notification u/s 4 to the date of actual taking possession of land/or date of award whichever is earlier.
Now, some interesting issues in this act that are being pointed out by activists against the act are provided below.
      • The act says compensation is payable only to interested parties which means the person has is interested in an easement affecting the land. This means that the agricultural labourers who are also dependant on the land but have no rights cannot be compensated.
      • assumes that money is an adequate means of compensation.
      • There is no standard and well defined process of fixing compensation.
      • In case where local bodies are the interested parties, they do not even have the right to go to court. They simply have to surrender and can only represent regarding compensation to the collector.
      • Under urgency provisions u/s 17, collector can do away with most of the above procedures and take possession of land. But what constitutes urgency or essential requirement has nowhere been defined.
      • 45 discusses how notice should be served. In case notice cannot be served on the person named, it has to be served on any other male member of the family. It is not lawful to serve the notice to a female member of the family.
      • How can govt acquire forcibly land and hand over to a company whose sole interest is making profit.
      • The rules and norms of market are not followed. Normally in market, land is traded for an amount mutually agreed to after negotiations.
      • entire process is very slow and due to inordinate delays causes great hardships to the people involved.
      • Compensation is not immediately paid to the evicted people resulting in great hardship to them.
However it is equally true that sometimes house owners claim astronomical amounts as compensation while refusing to pay betterment charges.

Wednesday, August 26, 2009


Provisions of 1773 Act
  • Court of Directors hitherto elected every year would be elected for 4 years
  • Total number of Directors 24,one fourth retiring every year
  • A Governor General in Bengal with four members to assist him and the quorum was 3
  • The member of Governor Generals EC to hold office for 5 years
  • The Governor General will have authority over Madras and Bombay
  • Supreme court was created
  • The court was given both original and appellate jurisdiction

Provisions of 1784 Act
  • A Board of Control with 6 members
  • Court of Directors retained real executive power and patronage and Board of control no power of patronage
  • The members of Governor Generals EC was reduced to 3
  • Only Covenanted servants will be appointed as members of the Council of Governor General
  • The Presidencies of Bombay and Madras were subordinated to the Governor General
  • Prohibition of aggressive wars and treaties with Indian princes
Provisions of 1813 Act
  • Company was deprived of monopoly of trade except trade with China and trade in tea
  • Rs 1 lakh for education in India
Provisions of 1833 Act
  • Centralized government in India and the Governor General of Bengal was made the Governor General of India
  • Bombay and Madras completely subordinated to the Governor General
  • A new member, a Law member in the Governor General's EC
  • Company lost its monopoly of tea trade and trade with China
  • "No Indian or natural born subject of the Crown resident in India by reason of birth,colour,descent, be disqualified for any employment under the company
  • Government of India to take serious measures to ameliorate the condition of slaves
Provisions of 1853 Act
  • The law member was made a full member
  • The number of Court of Directors reduced to 18, 6 nominated by the Crown and the quorum was fixed at 10
  • The power of patronage of the Directors was curbed
  • Services thrown to open competition
Provisions of 1858 Act
  • A Secretary of State for India and he will be assisted by 15 members of which 8 to be nominated by the Crown whereas 7 to be nominated by the Court of Directors
  • Half of the members must have worked in India for at least 10 years
  • Governor General was made Viceroy
  • Appointment to the Covenanted servants to be made by open competitive examination
Provisions of 1861 Act
  • Introduction of Portfolio system
  • A fifth member added to Viceroy's EC and he has to be a gentleman of legal profession
  • For legislative purpose Viceroy's EC was expanded by the addition of not less than 6 and not more than 12 members half of which must be non officials
  • Their tenure for 6 months
  • Power of Bombay and Madras Presidencies restored
Provisions of 1892 Act
  • Two fifth of the members of the council to be non officials
  • Principle of election introduced
  • Members could ask questions and general discussion on budget was allowed
Some points to remember
  • PSC introduced by the act of 1919
  • The preamble of the Act of 1919 was based on the August declaration of 1917
  • The income qualification of Hindu candidates was much more than that of Muslim candidates by the Act of 1909
  • Introduction of election by the Act of 1909
  • The details of electoral qualification and seat allocation was left to local authorities by the act of 1909
  • The Act of 1919 was the most short lived act
  • An Indian was appointed to the Viceroy's EC for the first time by the Act of 1909
  • By the Act of 1909 Executive Councils were created for Bengal,Bihar,Orissa and UP
  • By the Act of 1935, Council of States to have 250 members and Federal Assembly 375 members wherein Princely states to send 104 and 125 nominated candidates respectively
  • Provincial autonomy was granted by the Act of 1935.
  • A Federation by the Act of 1935 could not be formed unless states sent not less than 104 members to the Council of the States

Monday, August 24, 2009

Mughal India and Delhi Sultanat

  • Mubarak Khan whose father was killed in the battle of Macchiwara killed Bairam Khan
  • When Hemu captured Delhi Tardi Khan was the governor there
  • The first mention of Tauhid i Ilahi was in Dabistan i Mazahib by Mohsin Fani
  • Diwan i Tan was the official who was in charge of cash salary
  • Increase in the sawar of the mansabdars during emergency was known as mashruta
  • The reserved Armed force was known as Tabinan
  • Total land revenue figures of a village was known as taqsimat
  • Akbar reimposed Jeziyah in 1575 and revoked it in 1580
  • Although the Kangra mission of Jahangir in 1620 was led by Vikramjit Baghela, a Hindu,Jahangir called it a Jihaad
  • Khasrau was captured by Jahangir's forces at Bhairowal
  • Jahangir punished Sufi saint Nizaam Thaneswari
  • In 1543 Sher Shah organized a campaign against Multan to set it free from Biloch tribe
  • Malik Jiwan a Baluchi leader betrayed Dara and helped Aurangzeb to capture him
  • In 1668 Aurangzeb prohibited court dancing,1669 he ordered destruction of temples and in 1679, he imposed Jeziyah
  • Shaikh Sarmad a Sufi saint and associate of Dara was punished by aurangzeb
  • Peter Mundy gives a vivid account of the famine of 1630-32
  • After returning from Deccan Aurangzeb was made the governor of Gujarat in 1644
  • Shah Jahan's army met with Guru Hargovind's army at Kartarpur in 1631. There the guru's force was supported by Painda Khan
  • Shah Jahan started giving land on contractual basis or the Ijara system
  • Some books written by Guru Govind Singh- Nam Mela Puran,Shastar nam puran, Mangal Prakash,Akal ustat,Ukat Vilas,Krishna Avatar,Ram AvatarChandi charittar,Chandi di var,Pakhayama charittar.His autobiography was vaichittar nataka.His letters to Aurangzeb-Zafarnamah
  • Mir Jumla was originally a minister of Abdullah Kutub Shah of Golkunda
  • The Amins collected Jeziyah under Aurangzeb
  • In 1654 Dara was conferred the title sultan buland iqbal
  • Punishing Jujhair Singh Bundella was the first official assignment of Aurangzeb
  • Jahan Ara wrote under the pen name Makhfi
  • Tribute of the autonomous kings was known as peshkash
  • Ashrafi was a gold coin
  • Potugese brought tobacco in India in 16th century
  • Shah rukhi was a silver coin
  • Mir Fathulla Sirazi was a famous scientist
  • Shah Jahan introduced the post of Amin
  • Nahr i Bahist was the canal dug by Shah Jahan
  • Amalguzars gave taqqavi loans
  • Muqaddam and Patwari were the village headmen
  • Capt Avery was a notorious pirate and his prized catch was Ganj i Swai, a ship of Aurangzeb
  • Abdullah Sultan Puri was conferred the title Makhdum ul Mulk by Akbar
  • Ibrahim Adil Shah wrote Kitaab i Nauras.He was popular as Abla baba and also Jagat Guru
  • Maasir i Alamgiri written by Mustaid Khan
  • Faizi translated Lilavati,Sarhandi translated Atharvaveda,Todarmal translated Bhagvata Puarana,Shahbandi translated Rajtarangini and Badaoni translated Ramayana
  • Akbar gave Hari Vijay Suri the title Jagat Guru and Shah Jahan gave Jagannath the title Kavipriya
  • Shalima Begum invented Rose itr
  • Bishandas was sent to Persia by Jahangir to get a portrait of the ruler
  • Man Kautahal was a collection of Man Singh of Gwalior's famous musical works
  • Rajaram looted Akbar's tomb in 1688
  • When Babur was ill some nobles wanted to install Mehdi Khwaja on the throne
  • Guru Amar Das took vigorous steps to abolish sati
  • Guru Hargovind built Akal Takht

  • Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe
  • Nizam ul Mulk Junaidi came into prominence during Iltutmish
  • Fakhruddin was the chief kotwal of Delhi under Balban
  • Apart from Mohd Bin Tughlak Nasir udduin Mahmood too was a great caligraphist
  • Imaduddiin conspired against Balban in 1353-54
  • Balban separated army from civil administration and created arz i mamalik
  • Hauz shamshi was built by Iltutmish
  • Abdullah the grandson of Hlaku Khan invaded India during Jalaluddin Khalji
  • Malik Qabul was the shuhna i mandi under Alauddin
  • Ulugh Khan a mongol accepted Islam under Jalaluddin
  • "Soveregntyis not conferred upon everyone but it is placed on the elect"-Mohd Bin Tughladk
  • Amirana i sadbah revolted in Malwa, Gujaraat and lDaulatabad
  • Mailik Ghazi Shahna wdas the chief aArchitect under Feroz
  • Diwan i amirat was in charge of public works
  • Amir Sirzi wrote Faulad ul faud
  • In Nuh Sipihr Amir Khsrau showers praise on India
  • Zia Naakshbandi translated Sukha Saptati to Tutinamah
  • Dhrupad was Indian in origin
  • Ghuiyat ul Muniya by Malik Shamshuddin Abu Raja was the earliest Persian work on Indian music
  • Niamatnamah was a book on cooking
  • Adilabad and Jahapanah were built by Mohd Bin Tughlak
  • Lodhis borrowed enamelled tiles from Persia
  • Spindle was Indian in origin
  • Dhenkili was a water lifting device
  • Alauddin took the title Yamini Khilafat
  • Bahlol Lodhi invaded Jaunpur in 1484
  • Timur invaded India during Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughlak
  • Jalaluddin's original name was Mlik Firuz
  • Alauddin Shah of Bengal started Satya Pir movement.He patronized Maladhar Basu who translated Bhagvat Purana into Bengali and wrote Srikrishnavijya
  • Jainal Abedin borrowed paper making technology from Samarkand and he was the first sultan to abolish Jeziyah
  • Sikander Shah was known as Aurangzeb of Kashmir
  • In 1320 Mongol leader Dulucha invaded Kashmir
  • Jainal Abedin patronized Jonaraja and Sivaraja
  • Before Islam arrived Kashmir was a seat of Shaivism
  • Malik Mohd Jaisi lived in Jaunpur
  • Jainal Abedin built Jaina lake.He was known as Bud Shah
  • Mahmud Beghara sacked Dwarka as it harbored pirates and he also captured Girnar and Champaner
  • Ahmad Shah built Ahmedabad in 1414
  • Zafar Khan founded Gujarat
  • Ghiyasuddin Iyaz Khalji of Bengal transferred his capital to Lakhnauti from Devkot
  • Kampilendra founded Gajapati dynasty
  • Shungmung was a popular ruler of Assam

Vijaynagar Kingdom- points to remember

  • Yusuf Adil Shah was killed by KrishnaDeva Raya(KDR) in the Battle of Kovilkonda
  • KDR was known as Andhra Bhoja whereas Allasani Peddana was known as Andhra Kavita Pitamaha
  • Tenali Rama who wrote Panduranga Mahamattya, adorned the court of KDR
  • Tirumalamma was a famous poetess in the court of Achyuta Deva
  • During Virupaksha II Orissa became a part of Vijaynagar empire for the first time
  • Amuktamalyada written by KDR in Telegu was a book on polity
  • Siddhya was the tax collected in cash
  • Bukka sent an embassy to China(Ming dynasty).He adopted the title Vedamarga Pratisthapaka
  • Besabaga was the sale of human.Nicolo Conti talks in detail about it
  • Shalabhoga educational grant
  • Devaraya II wrote Mahanataka Sudhanidhi in sanskrit.His court was visited by Abdur Razzak
  • Battle of Talikota or the Battle Rakshasha Taggadi was fought on the bank of river Krishna
  • Devaraya I included Turkish soldiers in his army.His court was visited by Nicolo Conti.
  • The Military Dept was known as Khandachara and the revenue Dept as Athvane
  • Nuniz came during KDR's rule
  • Nikitin talks about the financial dualism prevailing in the country
  • Pattanaswamy was the head of Traders' Associations
  • Bhandarabadha was the crown land
  • Lola Lakshmidhara wrote "Saraswati Vilasa"
  • Rayasam was Royal decree
  • Anegundi was the initial capital of Vijayngar empire
  • KDR abolished marriage tax and patronised "Ashtadiggaja"
  • Kalyanamandapa was the ornated pillar pavillions in the temples
  • Barbers were exempted from professional taxes
  • Harihara II captured Belgaum and Goa and attacked SriLanka after which he took the title"Maharajadhiraja"
  • KDR gave permission to Albequerque to built a fort at Bhatkal
  • Harihara and Bukka initially served under PrataprudraDeva II of Kakatiya dynasty
  • Marava were the fishermen
  • Srirangam inscription belongs to KDR

Friday, August 21, 2009

Asoka Dhamma

Dhamma of Ashoka

There is no doubt that Ashoka's personal religion was Buddhism. In his Bhabru edict he says he had full faith in Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. He showed respect to all sects and faiths and believed in using among ethical and moral values of all sects. In Rock Edict VII he says all seeks desire both self control and purity of mind. In Rock Edict XII he pronounces his policy of equal respect to all religious sects more clearly.

The Dhamma as explained in Ashoka's edicts is not a religion or a religious system but a moral law, a common code of conduct or an ethical order. In Pillar Edict II Ashoka himself puts the question what is Dhamma? Then he enumerates two basic attributes or constituents of Dhamma: less evil and many good deeds. He says such

evils as rage, cruelty, anger, pride and envy
are to be avoided and many
good deeds like kindness, liberty, truthfulness, gentleness, selfcontrol, purity of heart, attachment to morality, inner and outer purity etc
are to be pursued vigorously. Ashoka established hospitals for humans and animals and made liberal donations to the Brahmans and ascetics of different religious sects.

He erected rest houses, caused wells to be dug and trees to be planted along the roads.

Ashoka took for the propagation of Buddhism.
He conducted Dharamyatras and instructed his officials to do the same. He appointed special class of officials called Dharamahamatras whose sole responsibility was to propagate Dhamma among the people. Ashoka sent missions to foreign countries also to propagate dhamma. His missionaries went to western Asia, Egypt and Eastern Europe. Of the Foreign kings whose kingdoms thus received the message of Buddhism five are mentioned in the inscriptions of Ashoka namely Antiochus, Syria and Western Asia, Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt, Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia, Megas of Cyrene and Alexander of Epirus. Ashoka even sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to propagate Buddhism in Srilanka.

Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Notes on Indian History: Indus Valley Civilisation



Three cultural stages

1) Paleolithic: (Old stone age) first stone tools (Fire)

2) Mesolithic: Hunting and food gathering

3) Neolithic: Man-made tools made by grinding and polishing, agriculture (Indus Valley)

4) Chalcolithic: Use of metals eg copper

PROTOHISTORY: Indus valley civilization belongs to Bronze Age also called Harappan civilization.

Indus valley period: 2400 to 1700 B.C.

Town planning:

* Grid system
* Klin Burnt Bricks
* Excellent underground drainage system

Important sites:

*Mohanjodara: Larkana (Sindh)
* Harappa: Montgomery (Punjab, Pak)
*Banawali: Hisar (Haryana)
* Dholavira: (Gujarat, Rann of Kachch)

Social condition:

Food: Barley and wheat
Garments: Cotton and wool
Pottery: Wheel turned
Metal: No iron
Utensils: Copper and Bronze
Entertainment: Dice playing, hunting

Economic Condition:
- Mainly agrarian
-No canal irrigation

Trade and commerce:- Barter trade

Script: Boustrophedon (pictographic): from right to left then left to right.

Seals: Soft stone called “Steatite”

- ‘Primitive Animism’
- Linga and yoni
- Prototype of Shiva
- Pipal, Neem and Tulsi

- Cremation
-Partial Burial
-Full Burial

- Natural Causes
-Foreign invasion

Notes on Early Vedic Age

EARLY VEDIC AGE (1500- 1000B.C)
-Knew nothing about sea

Social Condition
- Semi nomadic and pastoral people
- Women equal to man
- Well established institution of marriage
- Division of class ‘ Aryan and Dasyu’

Staple crop: Barley and barley only (Yava)

Coins Unknown: Barter system was practiced.

War: Known as ‘Gavishthi’- in search of cows

‘Ayas”:- For copper and bronze
- No clear evidence of trade
- Knew Gold but not silver

Religion:- Primitive Animism
Indra: Greatest God- 259 Hymn in Rigveda, called ‘Purandara’ or Breaker of forts
Sindhu:- River par excellence for Aryans
Agni:- 200 hymns
Varuna:- Personified water “Ethically the highest”
Savitri:- A solar deity to whom the famous Gayatrimantra is attributed.
Male Gods dominated.

Rigveda: Presents the earliest specimen of Indo European language.

Aryans entered India through Khyber Pass.


Drain of wealth theory:
R C Dutt: Economic history of India
Dadabhai Naoroji: Poverty and unbritish rule in India.

Drain of wealth refers to a portion of national product of India, which was not available for consumption of its people.

Revolt of 1857
Causes :
: Heavy taxation, Zamindari and monopoly.
Political: Doctrine of lapse
Military: Religious interference of soldiers and low salary.

Centers of Revolt:
Bhadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan
Kanpur: Nana Sahib, Tantiya Tope
Lucknow: Begum Hazrat Mahal
Jhansi: Rani Laxmibai
Bareilly: Khan Bahadur Khan
Bihar: Kunwar Singh.

Who said what about 1857 revolt:
Disraeli (opposition leader): A national Revolt
V D Savarkar: First war of Independence

Causes of failure:
Lack of coordination
No ideology or vision
Sikhs, Marathas, Jat- opposed
Limited social base

Impact of Mutiny
Rule of East India company ended
-India transferred to British Crown
-A minister of British Government called Secretary of State was made responsible for Government of India.
-The British Governer General was given title of viceroy
-Doctrine of Lapse withdrawn.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy(1771-1833)
Established Brhama Samaj

Prarthna Sabha:
In 1867 by MG Ranade

Arya Samaj
Bombay in 1875 by Swami Dayanand Saraswati
Started Shuddhi Movement

-Earliest Neo-nationalist
-“Go back to Vedas”
-Wrote “Satyartha Prakash”

Ram Krishna Paramhans
Original name : Gadoidhar Chattopadhyay

Swami Vivekananda(63-02)
-Original name: Narendranath Dutta
-Attended Parliament of religions held at Chicago in 1893 and Published – Prabhudha Bharata in English and Udbodhana in Bengali.
-Founded “Ramakrishna Mission”

First meeting organized by A.O Hume at Gokaldar Tejpal Sanskrit College on 28th Dec 1885 (Bombay). Its first president was W C Bannerjee.

-Gandhiji became the president in 1924 (Belgaum)
-S C Bose became the president in 1938 (Haripura) and 1939 (Tripuri)
-President during Quit India Movement 1940- Maulan Abul Kalam Azad (Ramgarh)
-J L Nehru became president for the first time in – 1929 (Lahore)

It began as an anti-partition agitationo in Bengal and Boycott was first suggested by KrishnaKumar Mitra in Sanjivni in 1905

Leaders Journals
Bipin Pal New India
Barinder Ghosh Yugantar
K K Mitra Sanjivani

Moderates and Extremists in Congress
Moderates- Pray, Petition.
Extremists- Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai.

-Tilak said “Swaraj is my birth right”
-He was the editor of Maratta ( English) and Kesri (Marathi)

Minto Morley Reforms(1909)
-Separate electorate for muslims.
-Elections introduced for the first time.

Home rule Movement
Tilak and Anni-Besant

Anni- Besant’s News Papers: “New India”, “Commonweal”,

History Notes for Prelims - Later Vedic Age

Later Vedic Age ( 1000-600 BC)
- Later Vedic Age- Also known as PGW (Painted Grey Ware)- Iron Age

- They knew two seas- The Arabian and the Indian Ocean

- Gandak was known as 'Sadanira'

- Position of Women Declined

- Earliest reference to four ashrams or four stages of life- found in 'Jabala Upanishad'

Eight Types of Marriages
1. Brahma: Marriage of a duly dowried girl to a man of the same verna.
2. Daiva: Father gives the daughter to the priest as a part of his fee.
3. Arsa: A Token bride price of a cow and a bull is given as dowry.
4. Prajapati: Marriage- without dowry and bride price.
5. Gandharva: By consent of two parties analogous to modern love marriage.
6. Asura: Marriage by Purchase
7. Rakshsa: Marriage by Capture
8. Paishacha: Seduction of a girl while asleep, mentally deranged or drunk.

Marriage on the Basis of Varna

1. Anuloma: Marriage of a man in his verna or below his verna
2. Pratiloma: Marriage of a girl or woman in lower rank than his own verna.

Polity: The term 'Rastra' First appeared in this period.
Economy: Rice is called 'Vrihi'
- Niksha, Satmana, Krsnala-were used as convenient units of values, but were not coins.

Four Types of Pottery

- Black and Red ware

- Black and Slipped ware

- Painted grey ware

- Red ware


Prajapati ( the creator) comes to occupy supreme position.
- Rudra and Vishnu gained their position

Vedas: First three vedas are called "Trayi"-three fold knowledge.
Rigveda: Recited by Priest 'Hotri'-1028 Hyms (10 Mandals) -Atraya and Kaushitak Brahamns are attached to it.
Samveda: Receited by Priest 'Udgatri'- All the verses except 75 taken from Rigveda- Tandayam and Janmejaya Brahamns are attached to it.
Yajur Veda: Receited by 'Ardhyawahu'- Procedure for performance of sacrifice. Shatpath and Taitriya Brahamns are attached to it.
Athrva Veda: Magical Formulae

Brahamnas: Science of Sacrifice
Aranyaks: Forest Books: Meant for forest dwelling hermits


- Shiksha ( Phonetics)

- Kalpa ( Ritualistic Science)

- Jyotish ( Astronomy)

- Vyakarana ( Grammar)

- Nirukta ( Etymology)

- Chhanda (Metrics)

Nirukta from Yaksha is the oldest Indian Linguistic Text


Shranta Sutra: Large public sacrifices

Guhya Sutra: Birth, Naming, Marriages

Salva Sutra: Measurement

- Aurveda

- Dhaurveda

- Gandharvaveda

- Shilpaveda

Rituals and Sacrifices

Rajasuya: Royal consecration, conferred supreme powers on him
Vajpaye: Race of horces (chariots)
Vritasyoma: to convert a Nishd into Arya

Saturday, August 15, 2009

History of Indian Science & Technology

Traditional Fermentation Technology
Pankaj Goyal

Transport in the far-Flung Harappan Territory

D.P. Agrawal
Military Surgery in Ancient India
D.P. Agrawal
Mystery of The Gloss on the Early Historic NBP Ware
D.P. Agrawal

Traditional Knowledge on Plant Conservation Linked to Beliefs and Religious Rites

Pankaj Goyal
Dev Vans: A Cultural Device to Conserve Ecology in Uttaranchal
Girija Pande
Sea and Inland Navigation
Pankaj Goyal
The Needham Question - Some Answers
D.P. Agarwal
De-colonizing : Technology and Culture in India
D.P. Agrawal & Manikant Shah
Navigation, Math & Astronomy: the Pagan Knowlege
D.P. Agarwal
Safed Musli: A Potent Traditional Medicine and Cornucopia
D.P. Agarwal
Science and Social Movements in India
Manikant Shah
Pharmacology and Toxicology in Ancient India
D.P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari
Himalayan Medicine System and its Materia Medica
D.P. Agarwal
Hospitals in Ancient India
D.P. Agarwal and Pankaj Goyal
Fabulous Wealth of Pre-British India
Manikant Shah
Sreni(Guilds) A unique social innovation of Ancient India
D.P. Agrawal & Manikant Shah
Krishi Parashara: An early Sanskrit Text on Agriculture
D.P. Agrawal & Manikant Shah
The Indus Civilization = Aryans : Is there really a Problem?
D.P. Agarwal
Infinitesimal Calculus: How and Why it was imported to Europe
C.K. Raju
Medicine in the Buddhist and Jaina Traditions
Pankaj Goyal
Theories of Navya Nyaya
D.P. Agarwal and Pankaj Goyal
Kumaon Iron Works, the British and Traditional Technology
D.P. Agarwal and Pankaj Goyal
Dravyaguna:Origin and it's development
Pankaj Goyal
Survival of Traditional Indian Iron Technology
Pankaj Goyal
Dyes and Detergents: Traditional Himalayan Technology
Lalit Tiwari
Animal Husbandry and Cattle Management in Arthasastra
Lalit Tiwari
Traditional Herbal Medicine and Western Approach: A Contrast
Pankaj Goyal
How the British diminished crops in India and dismantled a native system of abundance

Science in Classical Indian Texts

The Bill of Contentions
Anil Agrawal
About The Date Of Caraka, The Famous Ancient Physician
D.P. Agrawal
Ancient Ship-Building & Maritime Trade
D.P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari
Ayurveda: the Traditional Indian Medicine System and its Global Dissemination
D.P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari
Copper Technology in the Central Himalayas Goes Back to 2000BC
D.P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari
Dharampal, the Great Gandhian and Historian of Indian Science
D.P. Agrawal
Diabetes and Traditional Medicine: New Research
D.P. Agrawal
Digital Library of Traditional Knowledge
D.P. Agrawal
Does Ayurveda Begin With Dhanvantari, The Ancient Physician
D.P. Agrawal
Earthquake Resistant Structures of Himalayas
D.P. Agrawal & Manikant Shah
Gleanings from Dharampal
D.P. Agrawal
India Was the First to Smelt Zinc by Distillation Process
D.P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari
Indian Chemistry Through The Ages
D.P. Agrawal
Iron In Kumaun Goes Back To First Millennium BC
D.P. Agrawal & Manikant Shah

Legends as Models of Science

D.P. Agrawal

Medicinal properties of Neem: New Findings

D.P. Agrawal

Mental Depression & Sudarshan Kriya: Recent Research

D.P. Agrawal

Monsoon Muddle – 2002: Panchangs And Meteorology

D.P. Agrawal & Manikant Shah

Needham On Early Indian Inventions Of Hydraulics, Cotton-Gins And Alcohol Distillation

D.P. Agrawal
Non-Literate Traditional Knowledge Systems, with Special Reference to Himalayan Folklore
D.P. Agrawal
Scientific Exchanges Between Ancient Tibet and India
D.P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari
Shilajit, the Traditional Panacea: Its Properties
D.P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari
Surapala's Vrikshayurveda: an Introduction
D.P. Agrawal
Susruta: The Great Surgeon of Yore
D.P. Agrawal
The Amazon rainforest medicinal herbs and Western attempts at exploitation of the indigenous traditional knowledge
D.P. Agrawal
The Jeevani elixir of the Kani tribes of Kerala and their Intellectual Property (IP) rights
D.P. Agrawal
The Kerala School, European Mathematics and Navigation
D.P. Agrawal
Traditional Treatments of Some Incurable Diseases
D.P. Agrawal & Lalit Tiwari
Technology of Medieval Crafts
D.P. Agrawal & Bidri Ware
Science, Technology and Human Development
Vijay Bedekar, PhD
Down the Earth: an interview with P.S. Ramakrishnan
Lian Chawli
IEEE Acknowledges JC Bose as Inventor of Radio and Wireless Transmission
D. T. Emerson
The Great Art Of Bharatanatyam: Alarmel Valli Speaks Up In Interview
Andre Fonteyne
Centres on the Periphery: Coping with Climatic and Institutional Change
Anil Gupta

Babylonian and Indian Astronomy: Early Connections*

Subhash Kak, PhD

History of Indian Science, an Essay in Grolier Encyclopaedia, 2000

Subhash Kak, PhD
Indic Ideas in the Graeco-Roman World
Subhash Kak, PhD

Light or Coincidence?

Subhash Kak, PhD
Eleven Objections to Sanskrit Literary Theory: A Rejoinder
Kapil Kapoor
Zinc Production in Ancient India
J.S. Kharakwal
Reasserting Their Lost Wisdom and Rights: Villages in Rajasthan Overcome Sarkari Dependence Profile of Rajendra Singh and his Work
Madhu Kishwar
What Eleventh-Century Spain Knew About Indian Science and Math
Alok Kumar, PhD
Alberuni on Pre-Islamic India's Science, Math, and Architecture
Vinod Kumar
An Introduction to the Nahuatl Culture and Its Concept of Isvara
Akatl Ortega
Communities, Knowledge and Biodiversity: Theoretical Orientation of Ethnoforestry
Deep N. Panday
Measures of Success for Sustainable Forestry Pursuing Progress towards Sustainability
Deep N. Panday
Sacred Forestry: The Case of Rajasthan, India
Deep N. Panday
Traditional Knowledge Systems for Biodiversity Conservation
Deep N. Panday
Surgical Legacy of Sushrutha's in Ancient India
Anil Pande
Agriculture by Parashara
Could India's "Failed" Monsoon Have Been Predicted by the Right Calendar?
C. K. Raju
The Panini-Backus Form in Syntax of Formal Languages
T. R. N. Rao, PhD
TKDL – A safeguard for Indian traditional knowledge
Nirupa Sen
Agricultural Science in Kautilya's Arthasastra
Manikant Shah
Aryabhata's Babylonian Contacts
Manikant Shah
Gharats of Uttaranchal: Harnessing Natural Energy
Manikant Shah
Indian Astronomy Through Ages
Manikant Shah
Silent Traffic in India's Intellectual Property
Narasingha P. Sil, PhD
Non-edible oils as biodiesels*

A Potential Anticancer Medicinal Plant
Lalit Tiwari & D.P. Agrawal
All Purpose Turmeric: Uses, Chemistry, IPR
Lalit Tiwari & D.P. Agrawal
Alternative Medical Therapies of India: an Introduction

Lalit Tiwari
History of Paper Technology in India

Lalit Tiwari
Metrology in Artha-sastra

Lalit Tiwari & D.P. Agrawal
New Findings Vindicate Efficacy of Shatavari
(Asparagus racemosus), Traditional Medicine

Lalit Tiwari
Siddha Medicine: Its Basic Concepts

Lalit Tiwari
Traditional Himalayan Medicine System and its Materia Medica

Lalit Tiwari
Tribal Medicine: the Untapped Treasure
Lalit Tiwari & D.P. Agrawal
The recording of traditional knowledge: Will it prevent 'bio-piracy'?

Sangeeta Udgaonkar
India's Medical Legacy*

Dr. M. S. Valiathan
Diamonds: A History*

Multi-Stakeholder Training Programme on Climate Change Mitigation through Participatory Carbon Management in Multifunctional Forests

Indian Chemistry Through The Ages
by D.P. Agrawal

D.P. Agrawal
Ancient Jaina Mathematics: an Introduction
D.P. Agrawal
Indian Astronomy Through Ages
Manikant Shah
Minerals and Metals in Kautilya's Arthasastra
Manikant Shah
Linguistic Avatars of Wootz: The Ancient Indian Steel
D.P. Agrawal
Ancient Indian Botany and Taxonomy
Lalit Tiwari
Traditional Navigational Knowledge among Tribes of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
D. P. Agrawal
Education in Pre-British India
Pankaj Goyal
Science in Jain Canonical Literature
Manikant Shah
Story of Glass in India & the World
Pankaj Goyal
Ancient Crop Protection Practices: Their Relevance Today By Pankaj Goyal
Pankaj Goyal

Friday, August 14, 2009


Thursday, August 13, 2009

AKBAR'S Hamzanama

YAAR sushil tune kabhi akbar k hamzanama k bare me suna hai.
Sushil say's"nahi re, tu bata"


The Hamzanama or Dastan-e-Amir Hamza (Adventures of Amir Hamza) is an important work which narrates the fantastic exploits of Amir Hamza, the uncle of the prophet of Islam. An illustrated manuscript of the Hamzanama, an artistic masterpiece was created about 1558–1573 under the Mughal emperor Akbar.

The Hamzanama was designed to augment a storytelling performance. This romance originated more than 1,000 years ago, probably in Persia, and subsequently spread throughout the Islamic world in oral and written forms.

Manuscripts of the Hamzanama

The illustrated manuscript created during the Akbar's reign originally comprised 1,400 canvas folios. On one side of most of the folios is a painting, about 54cm x 69cm in area, done in a fusion of Persian and Indian styles. On the other side of most of the folios is Persian text in Nasta'liq script. The folios are ordered, and the text on the back of one folio accompanies the painting on the subsequent folio. Bulk of this folios are to be found in the Austrian Museum of Applied Art (MAK), Vienna, the Victoria and Albert Museum and the British Museum, London.

The colophon of this manuscript is still missing. None of the folios of this manuscript so far found is signed. According to Badauni and Shahnawaz Khan the work of preparing the illustrations was supervised initially by Mir Sayyid Ali and subsequently by Abdus Samad. It took fifteen years to complete the work[1].

The Dastan-e-Amir Hamza existed in several manuscript versions. One version by Navab Mirza Aman Ali Khan Ghalib Lakhnavi was printed in 1855 and published by the Hakim Sahib Press, Calcutta, India. This version was later embellished by Abdullah Bilgrami and published from the Naval Kishore Press, Lucknow in 1871.



Section A

  • Prehistoric cultures: in India.
  • Indus Civilization: Origins, the mature phase, extent, society, economy and culture. Contacts with other cultures. Problems of decline.
  • Geographical Distribution: characteristics of pastoral and farming communities outside the Indus region, from the neolithic to early iron phases.
  • Vedic Society: The Vedic texts; changefrom Rigvedic to later Vedic phases. Religion; Upanishadic thought. Political and social organisation; evolutuion of monarchy and varna system.
  • State Formation: and urbanization, from the mahajanapadas to the Nandas. Jainism and Buddhism. Factors for the spread of Buddhism.
  • The Mauryan Empire: Chandragupta; Megasthenes. Asoka and his inscriptions; his dhamma, administration, culture and art. The Arthasastra.
  • Post-Mauryan India (BC 200- AD 300) Society: Evolution of jatis. The Satavahanas and state formation in Peninsula. Sangam texts and society. Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushanas; Kanishka. Contacts with the outside world. Religion : Saivism, Bhagavatism, Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism; Jainism; Culture and art.
  • The Guptas: and their successors (to c. 750 AD). Changes in political organisation of empire. Economy and society, Literature and science, Arts.


Section B

  • Early Medieval India:Major dynasties; the Chola Empire. Agrarian and political structures. The Rajaputras. Extent of social mobility. Postition of women. The Arabs in Sind and the Ghaznavides.
  • Cultural Trends: 750-1200, Religious conditions: importance of temples and monastic institutions; Sankaracharya; Islam; Sufism. Literature and Science. Alberuni’s "India". Art and architecture.
  • Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: Ghorian invasions causes and consequences. Delhi Sultanate under the "Slave" Rulers. Alauddin Khalji: Conquests; administrative, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad Tughlug's innovations. Firuz Tughluq and the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Growth of commerce and urbanization. Mystic movements in Hinduism and Islam. Literature. Architecture, Technological changes.
  • The Fifteenth and Early 16th Century: major Provinicial dynasties; Vijaya-nagara Empire, The Lodis, First phase of the Mughal Empire: Babur, Humayun. The Sur empire and administration, The Portuguese, Montheistic movements: Kabir; Guru Nanak and Sikhism; Bhakti, Growth of regional literatures, Art and Culture.
  • The Mughal Empire: 1556-1707. Akbar: conquests, administrative measures, jagir and mansab systems; policy of sulh-i-kul. Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb: expansion in the Deccan; religious policies. Shivaji. Culture: Persian and regional literatures. Religious thought: Abul Fazl; Maharashtra dharma. Painting. Architecture. Economy: conditions of peasants and artisans, growth in trade; commerce with Europe. Social stratification and status of women.
  • Decline of Mughal Empire: 1707-61. Causes behind decline. Maratha power under the Peshwas. Regional states. The Afghans. Major elements of composite culture. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. Rise of Urdu language.